Archive: Nov 2021

Powdered Metals Used for Forging

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Powdered metal is a fine powder made from metal granules. The metal substrate is atomized and refined to create a consistent, highly specialized powder. Manufacturers use this material to compress and sinter thin layers of metal into a final shape. Powdered metal manufacturing is a popular, cost-effective alternative to traditional manufacturing methods, especially for parts with complex geometries. Learn more about how powdered metals are used for forging and what metals work best.

Where Are Powdered Metals Used?

Virtually every industry uses parts made from powdered metals. Industries often use powdered metals to produce prototypes for testing and design revisions using additive manufacturing. Powdered metals can also be used for fully functional parts used in harsh environments and critical applications depending on the metal’s heat treatments and finishes. Some of the most common applications for powdered metals include:

  • Aerospace equipment parts
  • Automotive parts
  • Biomedical devices
  • Brake linings 
  • Electrical contacts
  • Light bulb filaments
  • Marine components
  • Spacecraft heat shields

Using Powdered Metals for Forging

In forging, powdered metals are pressed and sintered to create a pre-form. Then the part is heated and hot forged, which results in a full-density part that exhibits enhanced mechanical and metallurgical properties.

Forging is an ideal manufacturing process not only because it enhances certain features of the part, but because it offers a cost-effective and time-saving method for creating various products. Parts made with forging exhibit high ductility and improved resistance to load fatigue and impact. The process is also compatible with a wide range of materials to suit the needs of various applications.

Best Materials for Forging

Forging can be used with numerous powdered metals, each of which offers its owns unique characteristics. Some of the most popularly used powdered metals for forging include:

Carbon Steel

Carbon steel forgings can include chromium, cobalt, nickel, titanium, and many other elements in addition to carbon. The amount of carbon determines the hardness. Forging carbon steel is cost-effective and is most suitable for applications that don’t require high strength or high operating temperatures.

Alloy Steel

Alloy steel can include traces of many different metal elements. Each unique alloy has different degrees of wear resistance, hardness, durability, and corrosion resistance.

Microalloy Steel

Microalloy steel contains small amounts of alloying components to increase certain desirable properties while reducing production costs.

Stainless Steel

Stainless steel is corrosion-resistant due to having a composition of at least 10.5% chromium. Stainless steel is also durable, easy to work with, recyclable, long-lasting, and resistant to extreme temperatures. These qualities make stainless steel appealing for a diverse range of applications.

Aluminum

Aluminum is lightweight with an excellent strength-to-weight ratio. Forged aluminum components exhibit fracture toughness, resistance to stress corrosion cracking, and tolerance to low temperatures.

Titanium

Titanium is a strong, sturdy metal that can resist physical damage, heat damage, and corrosion. However, titanium requires fine-tuned handling and temperature control during the forging process.

Your Source for Powdered Metals for Forging

At Continental Steel & Tube Company, we supply our clients with specialty metals and powdered metals for use across a diverse array of industries. Our company is ISO 9001:2015 and certified, and we have over 20 years of experience quickly fulfilling orders with high-quality metals, including:

  • Ferro Alloys and Manganese Metals. Ferro Boron, Ferro Molybdenum, Ferro Chrome (HC, LC) Molybdenum Oxide, Ferro Niobium, Ferro Manganese (LC), Ferro Silicon, Ferro Tungsten, Ferro Titanium, Silico Manganese, Ferro Vanadium, Electrolytic Manganese Metal
  • Minor Metals. Rhenium, Titanium, Tungsten, Chromium, Tantalum, Molybdenum, Zirconium, Niobium, Hafnium, Cerium, Yttrium, Lanthanum
  • Master alloys. Nickel boron, nickel magnesium, and many others

We have distribution centers in major manufacturing areas across the United States. Contact us today to learn more about our inventory of titanium, steels, alloys, and more. You can also request a quote to start your order.

Duplex Stainless Steel

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Duplex stainless steels come with numerous benefits compared to other stainless steel alloys. For instance, they provide high levels of yield and impact strength, along with excellent corrosion resistance, the ability to hold up in temperatures ranging from -50° C to 250° C, and optimal weldability and machinability. They’re also more cost-effective than other more expensive alloys.

In this blog post, we’ll cover the different types of duplex stainless steel, including their structure and applications.

Introduction to Duplex Steels

Duplex stainless steels feature an even combination of ferritic and austenitic microstructures. The alloy’s microstructure defines the atoms’ crystal structure, which is crucial in determining the alloy’s specific properties. While 3xx and 4xx stainless steels contain solely austenitic or ferritic structures respectively, duplex stainless steels feature both, combining the best features of each structure.

Duplex and Super Duplex Stainless SteelsDuplex and Super Duplex Stainless Steels

Based on their specific needs, different applications can use either duplex or super duplex stainless steel alloys.

Duplex Stainless Steels

Pulp and paper manufacturing applications first used duplex stainless steels in the 1930s, replacing 3xx grades to provide more corrosion resistance and strength. Originally, the designation for duplex stainless steels was UNS S31803 (F51), but later enhancements made to increase corrosion resistance led to a re-designation of UNS S32205 (F60). 

Super Duplex Stainless Steels

Off-shore oil and gas exploration and other developments requiring improved alloys led to the creation of super duplex stainless steels. Specifically, Ferralium came first in 1967 as the original super duplex stainless steel. Following the launch of this alloy, Alloy 32760 and Alloy 32750 came along with varying compositions.

Applications for Duplex and Super Duplex Stainless Steels

Many applications use duplex and super duplex stainless steel alloys. The following are some of the most common applications.

Oil & Gas

Downhole tooling, subsea and well equipment, pumps, and valves use super duplex stainless steels. H2S-containing environments such as sour service wells also frequently use these materials.

Bolts and Fasteners

Many bolts and fasteners feature super duplex stainless steel construction. This is due to the material’s high strength and ease of hardening for added strength. 

Pollution Control Scrubbers

Pumps, fans, and precipitators often use super duplex stainless steels. They offer superior corrosion resistance in systems using seawater and acids.

Marine Applications

Shafts, seals, rudders, and propellers frequently use super duplex stainless steel. Specifically, they will use this metal if austenitic stainless steels such as XM-19 are incompatible with an application.

Chemical Process Industry

Chemical processes often use phosphoric, sulphuric, and nitric acid during production. Super duplex stainless steels offer the wear, corrosion, and abrasion resistance needed in these applications.

Vegetable Processing

Equipment used for processing vegetables and grains often features duplex stainless steels. Ferralium 255 offers reliable resistance to wear and corrosion in sugar cane processing, centrifuges, and mixers.

Water Treatment

Some water treatment applications for super duplex stainless steel include swimming pools, desalination, and sewage treatment. Many of these environments use seawater, brackish, or contaminated solutions that require sufficient corrosion resistance.

Paper and Pulp

Components used to produce pulp and paper are often made with super duplex stainless steels. While duplex and lean duplex alloys are sometimes used, areas at a greater risk of failure typically use super duplex alloys.

Pump Shafts

Super duplex stainless steels often appear in pump shaft components. The popularity of these alloys in these applications comes down to the material’s combined strength and resistance to wear and corrosion.

Reliable Metal Material Services from Continental Steel

Both duplex and super duplex stainless steels offer plenty of benefits that make them popular in many applications. If you would like high-quality metal material services, the experts at Continental Steel & Tube can provide fabrication, forging, exporting, and industrial metal processing services based on your individual project needs. To learn more about our service offerings, contact us today or request a quote for our services at any time.