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Understanding Nickel Alloys – Monel® and Hastelloy®

A Guide to Understanding Nickel Nickel is one of the leading options for applications that necessitate high strength, corrosion-resistant materials. Its strength and versatility make this material an appealing choice in the engineering, energy, and plumbing industries. It has a melting point of 1453° C, is magnetic, and is highly ductile on its own. However, one of nickel’s biggest advantages is its ability to merge with other materials to create nickel alloys. The unique properties of nickel mean that manufacturers can optimize nickel alloys to deliver more desirable features. Industrial applications, for example, will commonly utilize nickel alloys to create tougher, more corrosion-resistant equipment that performs well at both high and low temperatures. As nickel alloys often perform well at temperatures of up to 1000° C, they are particularly suited for harsh, demanding environments. There are approximately 3,000 different nickel alloys currently in use across a diverse range of industries. Stainless steel is one popular option, making up approximately two-thirds of nickel alloy production. Other common nickel alloys include Monel® and Hastelloy®. To create alloys, nickel is most commonly combined with: Aluminum Chromium Copper Iron Titanium The strength, ductility, and corrosion resistance of nickel alloys mean that they can be found in many types of products and equipment, including: Aircraft and power turbines Building materials Cell phones Aircraft Food preparation equipment Laboratory equipment Medical equipment Nuclear power systems Pharmaceuticals Transportation What Is Monel®? Monel® is a trademarked name that refers to copper-nickel alloys. There are a number of different types of Monel®, each with its own advantages. This alloy is much stronger than nickel alone, highly resistant to corrosion, and highly weldable. Each of the five major types of Monel® is optimized for different applications, making this a versatile alloy that provides benefits to a number of different industries. Some properties and common usages of Monel® include: Monel® Alloy 400: With a wide temperature range and excellent corrosion resistance, Monel Alloy 400 is well suited for a diverse range of applications, from gasoline tanks to electronic components. Monel® Alloy K-500:Exhibits low permeability with high strength and corrosion resistance, making it a popular choice for equipment such as marine propeller shafts, scrapers, and oil well tools. Monel® Alloy K-500 Rev E:Produced to conform to the QQN 286 Form 1 spec, Revision E is best suited to provide corrosion resistance in sour gas environments. Monel® Alloy K-500 Rev F:Designed for components that must be solution annealed at 2050°F because of the presence of titanium carbide Revision F conforms to the QQN 286 Form 2 spec. Monel® Alloy K-500 Rev G:Produced to pass the slow strain rate tensile test and conform to QQN 286 Form 2, Revision G is best suited for applications where susceptibility to intergranular cracking is not an option. Monel® Alloy R-405:Commonly found in fasteners, screw-machine products, and valve parts. What Is Hastelloy®? Hastelloy® is a superalloy, meaning that it has higher strength than standard alloy materials. It is primarily composed of nickel and molybdenum and comes in several grades, the most popular being Hastelloy® C-276, Hastelloy® C22 and Hastelloy® X.   Hastelloy® C-276: Low carbon and silicon contents help to reduce concerns about welding with C-276. Hastelloy® C22: Higher chromium content allows C22 to provide exceptional resistance to chloride-induced pitting. Hastelloy® X: Provides excellent fabricability while maintaining strength at high-temperatures, ideal resistances to stress-corrosion cracking in petrochemical applications.   While each grade has its own advantages, they all exhibit exemplary levels of corrosion resistance. Other notable properties of Hastelloy® include: Oxidant resistance High ductility Strength at high temperatures Hastelloy® is simple to fabricate and has both forging and cold working capabilities. Its low carbon content contributes to this superalloy’s corrosion resistance in welded products, as this minimizes carbide precipitation during the welding process. Its many strengths mean that Hastelloy® is an excellent option for harsh environments that are likely to create high levels of corrosion and oxidization. In particular, it can withstand corrosion from: Chlorine Acetic acid Ferric chlorides Seawater Acetic anhydride This superalloy is also a popular choice for piping material in the chemical processing and petrochemical industries, and can commonly be found in pressure vessels, heat exchangers, and nuclear reactors. Contact Continental Steel for Any Nickel, Monel®, or Hastelloy® Projects Nickel and its many alloys provide a wide array of benefits to projects spanning multiple industries. At Continental Steel, we provide high-performance materials optimized to your unique specifications. To learn more about the solutions we offer or to work with us on your next project, contact us today.   Monel® is a registered trademark of Special Metals Hastelloy® is a registered trademark of Haynes International

A Guide to Understanding Marine Grade Aluminum 

The corrosive nature of water and saltwater dictates the use of special materials for shipbuilding, off-shore drilling platforms, and more. Due to its many beneficial properties, marine-grade aluminum is eminently suitable for building seafaring vessels and structures, as well as the machinery and components used within them. What is Marine-Grade Aluminum? Even though pure aluminum has a high natural resistance to corrosion compared to many other metals, the constant exposure to water and moisture in marine applications warrants additional protection. When alloyed with other metals like magnesium, aluminum develops an even higher level of corrosion resistance that can tolerate constant contact with water and saltwater. These specially treated aluminum alloys are known as marine-grade aluminum. What are the Benefits of Using Aluminum in Marine Applications? Marine-grade aluminum is specifically developed to make it ideal for use in marine environments. As such, it possesses a number of properties required in these applications. Some of these properties include: Superior corrosion resistance Lightweight with a high strength-to-weight ratio Compatibility with a variety of fabrication processes Wide availability in sheets, extrusions, and plates Properties of Aluminum for Marine Applications There are many grades of marine aluminum, each differing slightly in its properties due to the alloy materials that are included. Continental Steel supplies several grades of marine aluminum in a variety of stock forms, including plate, sheet, coil, pipe, tube, bars, and extrusions We can also provide them with varying degrees of temper. The grades we can provide include:  5083. 5083 marine-grade aluminum is ideal for applications that need superlative corrosion resistance in hostile environments. 5083 is the strongest non-heat treatable aluminum alloy and maintains its strength even after welding. 5086. This alloy is highly conductive with superior corrosion resistance. 5086 can be strengthened through strain hardening and cold working until it is even stronger than in 5083. Though compatible with multiple welding methods, electric arc welding is preferred for this alloy. 5454. The beneficial properties of 5454 include high strength, superior corrosion resistance, and good formability and weldability.  5456. Widely used for structural applications, 5456 is well-suited to the extrusion process. It is also amenable to forming operations like rolling and forging. 5456 can be made stronger through cold working, but the process reduces its ductility. 5754. Its superior resistance to corrosion makes 5754 very suitable for the marine industry and other industrial applications possessing corrosive operating environments. It is also suitable for flooring applications due to its high strength. Aluminum Products for Marine Applications Marine aluminum is used to make a wide variety of marine products. Two of these include honeycomb panels and metal powder.  Honeycomb panels are composite products inspired by the structure of honeycombs in bee colonies. A honeycomb panel consists of a core layer of hexagonal honeycomb fabricated with aluminum. The core is sandwiched between two aluminum plates glued to either side. This structure can be fabricated with various thicknesses.  Honeycomb panels have the following beneficial properties: Low weight High rigidity, strength, and vibration damping High resistance to impacts Good insulation from heat and sound Good pliability Since the honeycomb panel requires a smaller quantity of aluminum than a solid sheet of comparable mechanical properties and thickness, it is more cost-effective than aluminum panels. It’s lighter weight also saves on shipping costs for bulk orders. Like all aluminum, honeycomb panels can be infinitely recycled. Aluminum metal powders are used in a variety of industries, including the marine industry. These fine particles of aluminum are used in many manufacturing techniques, such as aluminum injection molding, surface coating, and additive manufacturing. Marine Grade Aluminum From Continental Steel Continental Steel is an ISO 9001:2015-certified supplier and distributor of high-quality specialty metals, including marine aluminum. We provide these value-added services for all grades of aluminum to facilitate one-stop shopping for our customers: Anodizing Chemical milling Deep hole drilling Grinding Perforating Polishing Rigidizing Trepanning Please contact us or request a quote for more information about our marine-grade aluminum supply and capabilities.

All About Titanium from Continental Steel & Tube: Properties, Forms, and Applications

All About Titanium Properties, Forms, and Applications Titanium is a strong and lightweight metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and damage from high temperatures. Due to these key characteristics, it finds use in a variety of structural applications across many industries, including aerospace, medical, and automotive. Additionally, as a transition metal, it easily bonds with other metals to produce useful lightweight alloys. Forms of Titanium Titanium is available in several different forms, including: Titanium sheets are manufactured in a variety of thicknesses and sizes and can be produced with pure titanium or alloys, as needed. Titanium plates are thicker than titanium sheets and can also be manufactured to various size specifications, with both pure titanium or alloys. Titanium sheets and plates are frequently used in the construction of aircraft exteriors. Titanium tubing are hollow cylindrical components of various diameters. They are often used in the construction of hydraulics for automotive and aerospace machinery and lightweight frames for high-performance bicycles and motor vehicles. Titanium round bars are highly versatile and can be manufactured to various specifications, from small wires for dental and surgical implants to larger bars for aerospace and automotive components. Titanium pipes are typically wider in diameter than tubes and are useful for the conveyance of corrosive liquid and gaseous substances, especially in systems exposed to high heat or pressure. Titanium wires are strong, non-corrosive, and flexible and can be used for orthodontic implants and joint reconstruction in the medical industry. As the base material is hypoallergenic and easily manipulated, titanium wire is also commonly used among jewelry makers. Titanium Powders are ideal for all additive manufacturing processes, such as Direct metal deposition (DED), Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), Electron beam melting (EBM), Laser metal deposition (LMD), Metal injection molding (MIM), Selective laser melting (SLM). Applications of Titanium Due to its high strength-to-weight ratio and the ease with which it bonds with other metals, titanium, and its alloys are essential materials for a diverse set of industries, such as: Aerospace As it is lightweight and highly resistant to corrosion and heat, titanium is widely used throughout the aerospace industry for a variety of parts. For example: Titanium tubes are used to create lightweight airplane frames Titanium sheets and plates are used for exterior paneling Some of the other typical aerospace components made from titanium include compressor blades, rotors, and engine components. Mobile and Telecommunications In the telecommunications industry, titanium dioxide has been increasingly employed as a nanoparticle spray to disinfect mobile phones. Additionally, when used in 3D printers, it produces powerful transmission devices capable of sending telecommunications signals across farther distances without losing quality. Marine Since titanium is highly resistant to corrosion, it is an excellent material for use in marine applications. It can be found in the hulls and rigging fixtures of boats and ships and is used to construct marine heat exchangers, structures, fasteners, and motor components. Automotive The high strength, lightweight nature of titanium makes the material well-suited for use in automotive applications. It is used to construct automotive components such as exhaust pipes, engine valves, and mufflers. Continental Steel: A Quality Titanium Distributor in the USA with a Global reach Titanium is a highly versatile material characterized by a superior strength-to-weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and suitability for a broad range of operating temperatures. We offer an array of Titanium grades to meet a diverse array of applications. Commercially Pure Titanium Grades: Titanium CP4 – Grade 1 Titanium CP3 – Grade 2 Titanium CP2 – Grade 3 Titanium CP1 – Grade 4 Titanium Grade 7 Titanium Grade 11 – CP Ti-0.15Pd Titanium Based Alloys: Titanium Grade 5 – Titanium 6Al-4V Titanium Grade 6 – Titanium 5Al-2.5Sn Titanium Grade 9 – Titanium 3Al-2.5V Titanium Grade 12 – Ti-0.3-Mo-0.8Ni Titanium Grade 19 – Titanium Beta C Titanium Grade 23 – Titanium 6Al-4V ELI Titanium 6Al-6V-2Sn – Titanium 6-6-2 Titanium 6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo – Titanium 6-2-4-2 Titanium 6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo – Titanium 6-2-4-6 Titanium 8Al-1Mo-1V – Titanium 8-1-1 Titanium 10V-2Fe-3Al Titanium 15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al Titanium Beta Alloys Titanium Alpha-Beta Alloys At Continental Steel, we provide the highest quality titanium in a variety of forms, including sheet, plate, tube and tubing, round bar, pipe, wire, and powder. For more information on our titanium product offerings, contact us or request a quote.